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In the process of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), retinal homeostasis may be adversely affected with resultant modifications in retinal and choroidal tissue. Hypoxia and nutrient deprivation along with inflammation at the detached retina may lead to morphological and microvascularity alterations. These changes imply that the functional status of the macula may not be entirely restored despite anatomical repair.
Multiple types of discrete melanocytic choroidal lesions are currently recognized, including benign choroidal nevi, choroidal malignant melanomas, patches of choroidal melanocytosis, and foci of choroidal melanocytes stimulated paraneoplastically by a systemic nonmelanoma malignant neoplasm.
Recently, several studies and investigators have shown the beneficial effects of high dose dietary riboflavin (vitamin B2) in the treatment of keratoconus, post-refractive (LASIK, PRK & Radial Keratotomy) ectasia (with sunlight exposure) and patients treated with our own protocol (NIH Clinical Study – www.clinicaltrials.gov - # NCT 03095235) discovered significant relief for intractable migraine headaches and/or ophthalmic migraine (classic migraine visual symptoms without headache).
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a painless ophthalmologic emergency with potential for irreversible vision loss. Similar to ischemic stroke, CRAO occurs when there is sudden obstruction of the central retinal artery, leading to ischemic injury to the retina and subsequent cell death. Continuous occlusion and ischemia of the retina progresses to permanent damage to retinal cells and loss of vision.
While rare, retinoblastoma is the most common (1:16000 – 18000 live births) intraocular and life threatening tumor of childhood [1,2]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 66% of children present with symptoms before 2 years of age and 95% before 5 years of age. About 8000 new cases are detected annually with the highest incidence in Africa and India. In fact, more than 1400 cases each year are from India .
Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare congenital neurodevelopmental disease which is basically a primary Ciliopathy. It’s characteristic manifestation on imaging is so called ‘molar tooth sign’ in the brainstem and cerebellum. JS can involve multiple organs, mainly including retina, kidney, bone and liver. Clinical signs of early onset JS include hypotonia, developmental delay, breathing abnormalities, and ocular motor apraxia.
The case of a young girl with Dengue fever presenting with seizures and bilateral visual loss is presented. At the time of presentation, she had right hemiplegia and dysarthria but was not dysphasic. Fundoscopy revealed presence of macular and disc oedema in the right eye and vitreous haemorrhage in the left eye.
This is the first reported case of COVID-19 associated optic neuritis (ON) presenting with classic Uhtoff’s phenomenon typically associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Uhthoff phenomenon, also known as Uhthoff sign or syndrome, is a transient worsening of neurological function lasting less than 24 hours that can occur in multiple sclerosis patients due to increases in core body temperature.
Last year’s article In the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology  highlighted that Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI) is now the leading cause of visual impairment in the developed world . It also provided a definition of CVI [3,4], and summarized its functional deficits, and methods of assessment.
Acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN), first described by Bos and Deutman in 1975 , is an infrequent yet increasingly diagnosed retinal condition, characterized by the acute onset of persisting paracentral scotomata with capricious vision loss in one or both eyes, associated with (peri)foveal petaloid (wedge-shaped) outer retinal lesions generally accepted to be caused by microvascular damage to the retinal capillary network of the macula [2,3].
Orbital lymphoproliferative disorders (OLPDs) consist of a spectrum of diseases ranging from benign to malignant lesions including reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, and lymphoma. OLPDs rarely present as an orbital mass lesion in children. Accurate discrimination of OLPDs is crucial for treatment planning. We report a case to investigate the clinical and pathological features of OLPDs in children.
A patient with a unilateral congenital vitreous cyst attached to the posterior lens capsule is now described, with its photographic appearance.
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